What is honey?
It is natural sweet substance or liquid of natural origin produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from nectar gathered from flowers, juices from live parts of flowers or secretas of other insects sucked live parst of flowers, which are collected by bees, transformed and enriched by own specific enzymes, secretas form their glands , stored, thickened, deposited and left into cells within the hive to mature.
(Nectar is composed of water, natural sugars [mainly sucrose, fructose and glucose], and other substances including salts, acids, enzymes, proteins and aromatic substances. The precise composition varies according to flower type, soil and weather conditions.
The conversion of nectar into honey is caused by chemical and physical changes resulting from honeybees adding a natural enzyme they produce [invertase], and reducing the moisture content by evaporation. The honey is then stored and sealed in a ‘honeycomb’ of beeswax.)
What honey consist of?
Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose as well as other elements, such as organic acids, enymes and nonliquid particals originated from honey collection. The colour scales from clear to dark brown. .The consistency can be liquid, viscous or partialy or fully crystalized. The taste and aroma changes regarding the flower origin and flavors of honey vary based on the nectar source.
What honey contains?
- sugars: glucose, fructose, saccharose, dextrins,
- organic acids: malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid,
- amino acids: prolin,gulonic acid, lysine
- enzymes: diastasis, invertase,
- vitamin C and group B – e.g. A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, H, K, E, P,
- minerals: K,Ca,Na,Mg,Fe,Cu,Co,Zn,I,F
- aromatic elements
- hormons: acetylcholine, adrenaline and many more imortant elements.
Main types of honey according to its origin are flower and honeydew honey..
Flower honey or nectar honey is honey from gathered nectar, honeydew honey is originated mostly from secretas of flowers and trees and from secretas of insects sucking flowers Hemiptera on living parts of flowers.
Natural process of honey: CRYSTALLIZING, which is its mark of rightness - duration of crystallization for each honey is different, crystallization of honey varies from several factors (the rate of glucose and fructose, the method of processing, the temperature of storing), by delicate heating in a water bath warm up to 50 °C we can crystallized honey return its liquidy substance. Creamed honey is honey amended into creamed consistency by a controlled crystallization, deliberately induced in process; its a mixture full of fine tiny crystals.
Honey is different in colour by its origin:
- nectar honey are usually light (from watery bright colour of accacian honey, through bright yellow down to ocher-yellow sunflower honey, exception : buckwheat nectar honey is darkbrown in colour),
- honeydew honeys are dark in colour (spruce honey is red-brownish, abies honey is dark olive colour).
Honey must not have ubnormal aroma and taste, must not begin to ferment or yeast and must not unnaturally alter its ph or acidity
- It is recommended to eat daily. Its a source of immediate available energy and also - acting as antibiotically and anti-inflammatory, - strengthens central nerve system and psychic, improves sleeping, - fast absorbent and improves biological accessability of elements, - improves and deepens sleeping, - it is largly used in confectionary and gastronomy and many others.